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Species declines are happening worldwide, and amphibians are particularly vulnerable. We used a 21-yr dataset from 57 populations of wood frogs (Rana = Lithobates sylvatica) in Yale-Myers Forest, Connecticut, USA to estimate how demographic and climate factors affect stability and persistence. Our data show highly stochastic population dynamics. Both climate and demographic factors were important in determining population size. Winter temperatures from the winter before breeding had a negative effect on population, as did population density from two years previous. These data give insights into how landscapes and climate synergistically impact population dynamics.